The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is a scientific institution set up by the World Meteorological Organisation and the United Nations Environmental Programme in 1988.
Established to address the complexities of climate change, the IPCC provides objective scientific information, for policy makers on the causes, consequences and adaptation/mitigation of anthropogenic climate change. The IPCC has three Working Groups:
- The Physical Science Basis of Climate Change which assesses the physical scientific aspects of the climate system and climate change.
- Climate Change Impact, Adaptation and Vulnerability which assesses negative and positive consequences of climate change including vulnerability of socio-economic and natural systems of climate change and adaptation options.
- Mitigation of Climate Change assesses mitigation options which are available for preventing, limiting or removing greenhouse gas emissions from the atmosphere.
In addition to the working groups, the IPCC has established the Task Force on National Greenhouse Gas Inventories to develop an internationally agreed methodology for the reporting of greenhouse gas emissions.
The Australian Government developed the National Greenhouse Accounts (NGA) in accordance with the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) requirement for signatories to gather and share information on national greenhouse gas emissions and the Kyoto Protocol’s emission targets. The Accounts are a comprehensive set of reports tracking and monitoring Australia’s greenhouse gas emissions at the national, state and industry levels in order to achieve the emissions target for the Kyoto Protocol reporting period of 2008–2012.